Amun was the Aurora


Amun later became synchronised with Re to become Amun-Re. It is from this merger that scholars have erroneously labelled Amun as a solar deity. Although there is a link with the Sun (light!), it has nothing to do with some of the ideas proposed by some Egyptologists.

“However, while hidden, the addition to his name of “Re” revealed the god to humanity. Re was the common Egyptian term for the Sun, thus making him visible. Hence, Amun-Re combined within himself the two opposites of divinity, the hidden and the revealed. As Amun, he was secret, hidden and mysterious, but as Re, he was visible and revealed.”

This is confusing and appears to be an attempt to tie Amun in with preconceived ideas. I will offer three explanations for Amun-Re, although a combination of all may apply.

Comet Tails Planets Venus
Comet tails, the blue ionised tail (Amun’s sacred colour) always points away from the Sun.

Firstly, geomagnetic apparitions were not merely confined to the skies just above Earth. In fact, auroral manifestations were observed, or a least perceived to be on, around or emanating from celestial bodies. This included Mars, Venus, Mercury and the Moon (divine monarchy) in addition to comets and other lesser bodies. They all adorned similar traits to those exhibited by Amun. An interesting point concerns the cometary tails emitted by these bodies.

They all produced predominantly blue ionised tails as a result of the solar wind reacting with the gases in the tail (see the diagram on the left). Back then, the Sun, although hazed, was far more electrically active and the solar wind far more intense. This led to highly visible plasma tails appearing to trail countless celestial bodies. Because they were primarily blue in colour (Amun’s sacred colour) and somewhat ‘plumed’ in shape, a natural association with Amun was made. These ‘Amun tails’ always point away from the Sun. This fact was duly observed and recognised by the Egyptians, resulting in a direct and physical link with the Sun. The traits of Amun were dictated by the solar god Re. This led to the composite god Amun-Re.

Amun-Re’s (or Amun’s) rise to pre-eminence was due to events essentially switching Sun-side (daytime). This was a time when the main bodies and their entourage entered Re’s domain (gods land). As with Venus and Mercury, this was a permanent location and they still reside there today. This was a time when the migration of unimaginable quantities of debris fell further into the Sun, thus increasing the solar wind which not only boosted Amun’s prominence as the Aurora but also Amun’s familiar blue tails which emanated from countless bodies – this further gave rise to Amun-Re. These events were clearly observed because the Sun was further hazed red.

The second reason concerns Solar Flares. These are high energy outbursts from the Sun that boost the solar wind and subsequently the Aurora here on Earth. It can take only eight minutes for a solar flare to reach Earth. Due to a hazed red Sun, these golden outbursts (gold was the ‘flesh of the gods’) were clearly seen and it is possible that the effects upon the Aurora (Amun) were duly recognised. It is also possible that the paths, or magnetic currents of solar flares were observed (made visible) due to the countless tons of dust and gasses between the Sun and the Earth.

Thirdly, it is possible that we are dealing with a mistranslation of the name Amun-Re and it should actually read ‘Amun’s-light’ or ‘the light of Amun’. This is because textually we derive Amun-Re as follows:

Add the hieroglyph for Re (a disk) to the name Amun (imn), and together they read Amun-Re.

Egyptian hieroglyphs
Sun Ra glyph.
Amun Hieroglyph Egypt
Hieroglyph for Amun
Amun Re Ra Hieroglyph
Amun-Re hieroglyph.

The sign for Re can also mean light or time (Hieroglyphs, Collier p5). So, it is possible to read Amun-Re as ‘Amun’s-light’ or ‘the light of Amun.’ In other words, we have the ‘light of the hidden one’ Amun. While some may disagree, it makes sense to refer to light from the Aurora in this way. Its also possible to read the above as ‘Re’s light’ i.e. the light of the aurora having a direct connection/association with the ultimate light giving source, the sun.

King Gods Amun

Another more visual reading of Amun-Re concerns the imagery whereby Amun is depicted wearing a solar disk within his plumes (as in the photo on the left). Because all disks (red) represented the Sun, this is perceived to be the composite god Amun-Re. I believe the iconography has little to do with the Sun – the Sun does not have plumes! It is a symbolic representation of planetary bodies appearing amidst Amun’s aurora – in other words the neon lights of Amun protecting the god kings.

Amun and the God Kings Planets

Since the Aurora (Amun) was a transparent phenomenon, Egypt’s other sky gods such as Isis, Hathor and Ptah (ecliptic haze, earths rings, Jupiter resectivly) continued to play their part in giving birth, nurturing and housing the divine monarchy. This situation continued even as the solar wind increased and Amun rose to greater prominence. However, given that Amun now veiled the skies with his magical dancing lights, he superseded all others in sheltering and protecting the monarchy. This manifested itself in a number of ways such as dictating the throne of Egypt and aiding the planetary kings in battle. It is noteworthy that Amun played little part in the afterlife. This is just as would be expected given his close proximity to Earth (Lower Egypt). Amun’s names, titles, epithets and images demonstrated his close and personal relationship with the Egyptian monarchy.

The name Ramesses Meryamun (mery-amun) translates as ‘Re has Fashioned Him, beloved of Amun’. We can take this to mean exactly as it is stated. For example, Re was the perennial red orb who fashioned Ramesses/Mars, also a red orb (hence, ‘son of Re’). By appearing amidst the intense aurora, it was given the additional very apt title ‘Beloved of Amun.’ This proves that Re and Amun were two separate entities attributed to two separate phenomena. If Amun was linked to the Sun, then the logical name would have been ‘Re has fashioned him, beloved of Re.’ It was not linked in this way which demonstrates that Amun was not a representation of the Sun.

Gods Embrace Amun
Amun embraces the king.

Numerous pharaohs were adorned with the title ‘Beloved of Amun’ or ‘Chosen of Amun’. These were no different to certain other titles linked to other deities. The location and attributes dictated the names given to each planetary body. If they were in conjunction with Ptah/Jupiter they were given the title ‘Chosen’ or ‘Beloved of Ptah’. If they were aligned with the Sun they were ‘Beloved of Re’, or ‘Chosen by Re’. A similar naming pattern applied to all titles where the name of Amun was incorporated. All names should have been associated with the Aurora and the behavioural traits of planetary bodies within. The above ‘beloved’ or ‘chosen’ titles signified that these kings were ‘wrapped-up’ in Amun.

In the image on the right, the astral king (right) embraces Amun (left) in a very close and personal ‘beloved’ relationship. The monarchy are frequently shown embracing Amun in this way. The disk amidst Amun’s plumes symbolic of the planetary king amidst the plumed aurora.

Amun and Kingship

Amun Ram Form
Amun in the form of a ram.
Egyptian Amun Amen Amon
Sky god Amun shielding the kings.

Statues of Amun in the form of a ram protecting the Pharaoh (Credit: © Trustees of the British Museum)

The statues on above depict the Aurora enveloping the astral kings – a representation of ‘Chosen by Amun’. Amun’s temple at Karnak is lined with avenues of ram-headed sphinxes that protected the king in this way. It is reasonable to assume the ram was used to represent the ability to protect as well as fertility. I believe the fleece was used to represent a more concentrated form of the Aurora, possibly on the horizon and to the south. The ram’s ability to negotiate cosmic mountains would be another factor.

The Egyptians believed that some kings were created by Amun, such as Pharaoh Amenmesses which translated as ‘Fashioned by Amun’. This was a planetary body (Mars) which was either born amidst the Aurora or a body adorned with auroral traits.

Tutankhamun's Golden Throne
Tutankhamun’s Golden Throne. Observe the solar headgear.

Tutankhamun was the ‘Living image of Amun’ and this is confirmed by the imagery and Amun’s sacred colour blue. The image on the left is Tutankhamun’s throne. The whole scene is one of personified planets and astral events.The flesh is coloured the traditional deep red (red Mars) and the wig is a very unusual, vibrant blue. It is perplexing that experts do not question such elaborate attire and headgear. I propose this is a symbolic representation of Mars with numerous orbiting bodies. The deep red flesh represented red Mars while the vivid blue wig signified Mars at it appeared at the time – it was predominantly blue due to the effects of the solar wind or light refraction.

We have established that blue was the sacred colour of Amun – Tutankhamun/Mars was the ‘living image of Amun’. In a similar vein the name Amenemhet, which was given to a Middle Kingdom pharaoh, translated as ‘Amun is at the head’. Amun is at the head of what? Perhaps the ‘blue’ of Amun was observed at the head of Mars. The name Amenhotep means ‘Amun is pleased’ or ‘Amun at peace’. This title referred to the Aurora as it appeared to be at peace and many pharaohs were named after this phenomenon.


Hatshepsut as venus
The sky god Amun-Ra (daytime aurora) crowning
his “daughter” Pharaoh Hatshepsut/Venus.

According to ancient Egyptian theology, Amun was the physical father of the king. The Pharaoh and Amun enjoyed a symbiotic relationship and the king derived his power from Amun. As ‘Lord of the two crowns,’ it was Amun that gave the kings their authority to reign over Egypt.

Right: The top section of Hatshepsut’s Obelisk from Karnak

I believe the female queen Hatshepsut (‘Just and full of vitality like the Sun’) was identified with Venus, as were 98% of all queens. This identification occurred when Hatshepsut/Venus came so close to Earth that it outsized and outranked all other bodies. Such an exalted position demanded she be worshiped not as queen, but as a king of Egypt, Hatshepsut was depicted as a male wearing the traditional false beard and kilt of Egyptian kings.

Obelisks in ancient Egypt
Obelisk of Tuthmosis III.

The scenes carved on Hatshepsut’s obelisk commemorated the rise of Venus to kingship. The top section depicts the double plumed god Amun (the Aurora) placing the crown of kingship on Hatshepsut/Venus. The scene on the lower left section of the obelisk was second only to Hatshepsut’s coronation and shows Amun and Hatshepsut in what Egyptologists have dubbed ‘God’s wife embrace’. This image represented the Aurora as it ‘embraced’ Venus. For this reason, Hatshepsut had the title ‘She who embraces Amun.’ On the right of the obelisk is an image of Hatshepsut making an offering to the god Horus who was the embodiment of kingship.

The obelisk on the left bears the cartouches of Egypt’s Napoleon, Tuthmosis III. I believe this king was identified with the Moon (‘Born of the lunar god Thoth’). The top registrar depicts Tuthmosis/Moon holding hands with Amun. The lower section depicts the king making an offering to Amun. On the right we can see Amun as he reciprocates by touching the king with the ankh, the symbol for life. This image represented aurora granting life to the astral king.

Seti God Amun
Seti/Mercury receives royal regalia from Khnum (Credit: Jon Bosworth)

The image above depicts Seti/Mercury receiving royal regalia from the ram-headed god Khnum (the creator of a person’s double or ka) and Amun. The distinctly unusual headgear worn by Seti/Mercury is very interesting. It signifies that Seti/Mercury was also adorned with cometary plumes and orbiting bodies. It is illogical to propose that earthly kings wore such attire. No examples of any royal crowns have ever been found because they mainly represented the attributes of the astral kings.

The following offering scenes should be taken at face value. Egypt’s astral monarchy collected, shed and dispersed unimaginable quantities of dust and gases over the 3,000 period, especially Mars and Venus. This was naturally perceived as offering such things as food, flowers, scented oils and incense to the gods, in this case Amun.

Aurora lights solar wind
Stela of Ramesses II, depicting Ramesses/Mars making an offering to Amun
(Credit: Simon Hayter)
Aurora dancing neon lights.
Ramesses IV (Mars) offering the sign for ma’at (divine order) to Amun
(the red disk of Mars is placed above the king’s crown)
(Credit: Wikimedia Commons)
Ancient Egyptian offering scenes
Ramesses III (all Mars) offering to Amun (once again the red disk of Mars is placed above the king’s crown).
God king scenario.
Ramesses/Mars god among gods. From the left: 1 Ptah/Jupiter. 2 Amun-Ra (daytime Aurora). 3 Ramesses/Mars. 4 Ra-Horakhty (Horus of the horizons).

Amun and Warfare

Egypt was ruled by Amun through the pharaohs – he aided them in battle and kings were given the epithet ‘Amun is his strength.’ Tuthmosis III (Moon) was said to have marched under the banner of Amun, with ‘Amun on his side’. Amun was therefore known as the ‘the king who maketh kings to rule.’

“His majesty (Tuthmosis) commanded to cause to be recorded his victories which his father, Amun, gave to him…”

“His majesty went forth in a chariot of electrum, arrayed in his weapons of war, like Horus, the Smiter, lord of power; like Montu of Thebes, while his father, Amun, strengthened his arms.”

“This army offered acclamations to his majesty! Giving praise to Amun for the victories which he gave to his son (Tuthmosis).”

“….from the first of the victories which he (Amun) gave me, in order to fill his storehouse…”

The following inscription concerns Tuthmosis I (Moon) ‘Universal triumph’

“I made the boundaries of Egypt as far as that which the sun encircles. I made strong those who were in fear; I repelled the evil from them. I made Egypt the superior of every land […] favourite of Amun, Son of Re, of his body, his beloved Thutmose (I), Shining like Re, beloved of Osiris, First of the Westerners; Great God, lord of Abydos, ruler of eternity; given life, stability, satisfaction, and health, while shining as King upon the Horus-throne of the living; and joy of his heart, together with his ka, like Re, forever.” (my bold emphasis).”

Note the following concerning Tuthmosis I: ‘I made the boundaries […] as far as that which the sun encircles’, and ‘Shining like Re.’. These expressions refer to planetary bodies and not humans. Mesopotamian god king planets also adorned similar titles as with the king Narem Suen who was “King of the Universe” and “King of the Four Regions.” (link).

“He (Amun) hath given to him the south as well as north, west, and east.”

“I have worked a marvel for thee; I have given to thee might and victory against all countries.”

(Source Breasted Vol II)

The following images depict Amun handing the symbol of invincibility, the khepesh sword to the king.

Ancient battles
Seti/Mercury fighting the Hittites (Credit: Jon Bosworth)

In the picture above, the large figure of Seti is ritually massacring prisoners before Amun (centre) who hands Seti (Mercury) the khepesh sword. Such reliefs recorded incredible battles in the heavens. This image provides a snapshot of Seti/Mercury as he fearlessly charged headlong into countless tons of foreign bodies that threatened to bring the whole universe into chaos. These battles occurred under the protection of the god ‘whose true form could never be known,’ the Aurora/Amun.

The majority of Egypt’s deities were sky gods. Many gods (such as Amun) were depicted caressing and embracing the royal family as part of a very close and personal relationship. Despite this, Egyptologists fail to grasp that heavenly gods and the monarchy were depicted together because they both inhabited the sky – the realm of the gods.

Egyptian Gods Montu
The Egyptian god of war Montu.

The picture on the left depicts Montu (also Mont, Month, Monthu) the war god

To my knowledge Amun is never shown smiting an enemy. The kings ruled under his authority and he is shown handing them the weapons of war, but he never vanquishes an enemy himself. There were times when the Aurora looked and acted in an aggressive manner (red aurora), which was consistent with the predominantly placid nature of the Aurora. It was the kings who physically smote the enemies of Egypt, not Amun, and in doing so they invoked the warrior god Montu.

Montu is commonly depicted as a man with the head of a falcon surmounted by a solar disk. He wore the double uraeus with two tall plumes extending vertically behind. He was later associated with the bull cults such as Buchis at Armant, and so he is depicted with the head of a bull and a plumed, red-disked headdress. Another bull sacred to Montu was also worshipped at Medamud and his weapon was the spear.

I regard Montu as the personification of aggression. He represented the military aspects and warring characteristics of the king as he was observed during times of intense geomagnetic storms, hence the wearing of the auroral plumes. Amun was the omnipresent Aurora who granted kingship and the right to govern while the warring traits of planetary bodies within Amun were embodied in the war-god Montu. The following inscription gives us a better understanding of this relationship:

“His majesty went forth in a chariot of electrum, arrayed in his weapons of war, like Horus, the Smiter, lord of power; like Montu of Thebes, while his father, Amon, strengthened his arms.” (Breasted)

This describes three separate sky deities; Horus, the embodiment of kingship and the deity who protected the kings for 3,000 years; Montu, the warring aspect of the kings during intense geomagnetic storms; and the omnipresent Amun who was described as ‘strengthening his arms’ – perhaps indicating that a straight blue cometary tail was observed (or possible numerous ionized tails or ‘arms’).

Many of the more war-like pharaohs referred to Montu, for example Ramesses III (Mars) at Medinet Habu.

“Year 5 under the majesty of Horus: Mighty Bull, extending Egypt, Mighty of sword, strong-armed, slayer of the Tehenu, Wearer of the Double Diadem; Mighty in strength like his father Montu…” (Ibid)

Nessu-Montu lead campaigns against the Bedouins.

“… I overthrew the strongholds of the nomads as if they had never been. I coursed through the field. I went forth before those who were behind their defences, without my equal therein, by command of Montu, to him who followed the plan of…” (Ibid)

By the New Kingdom, the 18th Dynasty pharaohs, some of whom followed a very military tradition, sought to emulate Montu. For example, the Gebel Barkal Stele of Tuthmosis III, often referred to as the Napoleon of Egypt, describes the king as ‘a valiant Montu on the battlefield’. Later in the New Kingdom, he became so personally identified with Ramesses II that a cult statue bearing the king’s throne name, Usermaare Setepenre, and the epithet, ‘Montu in the Two Lands’, was venerated in Ramesses II’s honour during his lifetime. When kings such as Ramesses II are referred to as ‘mighty bulls’, they are claiming an association with Montu as his son (source: Touregypt).

Other sky kings incorporated Montu’s name into theirs. For example, Montuhotep which means Montu is content. This is obviously an elusion to the warring aspect of Mars.

Ramesses Mars Amun
Ramesses/Mars subservient to the omnipresent aurora hence
the adoption of the common title “beloved of Amun.”
(Photo Credit: Jon Bosworth)
God kings embrace
Auroral (Amun) manifestations embracing a Pharaonic planet.
(Photo credit: Jon Bosworth)
Ancient Egyptian offering scenes
Ramesses III (all Mars) offering to Amun.

Note the disk atop the pharaohs crown – this is disk of Mars. The blue crown reveals Mars also appeared blue. The transparent clothing represents Mars as seen through the haze of dust and debris littering the skies. The traditional red flesh signifies the more common coloured red Mars.

In short we have Mars losing its volatiles amidst the aurora, this personified as the planetary pharaoh offering to aurora/amun. As Mars was torn apart from its once earth like state it would make many volatile ‘offerings’ to a wide variety of sky gods including the aurora.

Links to some great Aurora images:

You Tube Aurora/Amun:

The Ram Headed aspect of Amun

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