Pharaonic Names, Titles and Epithets

Guises of the planets Mars, Venus, Mercury and the Moon or names solely given to humans?

The God King Scenario (GKS) contends that the planets Mars, Venus, Mercury and the Moon were named and renamed many times over as they appeared to move back and forth in respect to earth. This paralleling the historical (and chronological) record of the pharaohs adorning every tomb and temple facade the length and breadth the Nile Valley. The names given to these bodies would primarily depend on their location and attributes in respect to earth and Egypt’s numerous sky gods such as the sun god Re (Ra) and Amun (the aurora which dominated ancient skies).

What follows is a fairly comprehensive chronological (conventional) list of names and epithets given to Egypt’s divine monarchy. The purpose of which is too demonstrate that many, if not all, only make sense if applied to celestial bodies. In other words, there is no need to invoke the notion that our ancient forebears promoted a somewhat surreal ‘idealised world’ as conventional wisdom dictates. The opposite couldn’t be more true. The Egyptian’s, in holding the belief that the name of a person was of the utmost importance, are in fact, giving very apt descriptions of their celestial personified counterparts and all names should simply be taken at face value.

Ancient egyptian Cartouche
Egyptian Cartouche.

Most of the following kings names are enclosed in cartouches (birth and throne names) as in the image on the left depicting Ramesses II throne name (User-maat-Re). The cartouche in itself has noteworthy celestial overtones – it symbolized that the king was the ‘Ruler of Everything Encircled by the Sun.’

The Sun rises in the east arches across the sky, sets in the west, battles the demons of the underworld (flat earth) to once again rise victorious in the east. In others words the sun draws a big circle in the sky and in doing so it encircles the ‘flat’ earth. The planetary kings many times emulated Re in this way, hence the ancient Egyptians enclosed the pharaohs names in a cartouche to signify their true astral status as ‘Rulers of Everything Encircled by the Sun.’

It is noteworthy that although not by use of the cartouche many Mesopotamian God Kings would enjoy similar ‘reigning over earth’ epithets. One such example would be Naram Sin of Akkad who was the first divine king to be given the much used title ‘King of the Four Quarters of the Universe.’ I associate Naram Sin as a guise of Moon (a Moon god Sin association) as it fell under the tidal force of the earth during the first millennium B.C. The Moon today still reigns as ‘King of the Four Quarters.’ In my quest to prove that ancient history is ‘upside down’ I will branch out into Mesopotamian cultures in the near future. For now, we will stick with the larger than life Egyptian god kings.

I have where possible given my planetary associations e.g. Ramesses (Mars), Tuthmosis (Moon), Seti (Mercury), Nefertiti (Venus, all queens were Venus). However, due to the intricate nature of this research, I am unable to synchronise many kings with their astral counterparts. I have many tentative connections but will not go to print until I’m sure.

The majority of the following pharaonic names are completely self-explanatory however, I deem it necessary to comment on some for reasons that will become apparent.

The source for many of the translations are given at the bottom of the page.

Narmer (Mars)

  • ‘The Striking Catfish.’


  • The Fighting Hawk (Horus).’ The ruling pharaoh was the sky god Horus e.g. ‘His Majesty is Horus’ and all planetary kings when reigning over earth were protected by and became the living incarnation of the falcon sky god Horus (Heru, ‘He who is above’ literally!). Another way of looking at this would be Horus was the embodiment of kingship. From the Middle Kingdom the royal titulary consisted of a unique combination of five names, one of them would be the Horus name – sometimes also called the Ka-name which I deem appropriate, given my contention that the god kings were first and foremost astral ‘doubles’ of earthly kings (See The Egyptian Dualism).


  • ‘Horus who Succours’


  • ‘Horus who Strikes’ The planetary king as Horus ‘strikes,’ dispatching the ‘evil’ debris that forever threatened to blot out the Red Sun (Re).


  • ‘His Arm is Raised.’ A reference to a king walking around with his arm in the air? What if Mars exhibited a enormous plasma tail, or arm stretching out into space.


  • ‘Pleasing in Powers.’


  • ‘Lord of Re.’


  • ‘Godlike.’ A radiant planet perhaps. I am reminded of Venus in the southern skies in 2009, certainly ‘Godlike.’


  • ‘The Two Powerful Ones Appear.’ Mars exhibiting traits of the god Horus (good) and Seth (chaos) simultaneously.


  • ‘Strong Protection. ‘The planetary king as the embodiment of Horus was ‘The Strong Protector of Mankind and the Cosmos.’


  • ‘Divine of the Body.’


  • ‘Powerful in Body.’ Planets are divine and powerful in body, not humans.


  • ‘The Smiter. ‘It was the role of the pharaoh to maintain ‘divine order’ (maat) in the cosmos and it was believed that without the pharaoh the whole universe would fall into chaos. Given their astral status and the fact they were constantly observed fearlessly crashing headlong into the enemy (space debris) numerous king were ‘smiters’ as supported by the iconic pharaonic ‘smiting an enemy’ pose carved on numerous temple walls.


  • ‘He of Beauty.’


  • ‘Protected by Khnum.’

Khafre (Chephren)

  • ‘Appearing/Shining like Re’ A red Mars/Khafre literally appearing like the Red Sun. Numerous of kings adopted this title.


  • ‘It is Good what the Ka (double) of Re has Done.’ A red Mars taking on the attributes of a Red Sun.


  • ‘He Who is Close to Re.’ A planetary body physically appearing close to the Sun.


  • ‘Possessed of Re’s Power.’ Solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections were clearly seen ‘striking out’ into space courtesy of our ancient red sun. This, the very reason why the Egyptian sun disk was many times adorned with a cobra. Planetary kings also adopted similar ‘striking’ or ‘lashing out’ traits with volcanic eruptions spiting fire and venom several kilometers out into space. Or to put it another way, they ‘Possessed Re’s power.’


  • ‘Enduring, the Double (ka) of Re.’

Pepi I

  • ‘Beloved of Re’ Dozens of kings adopted this title especially in the New Kingdom. Red planetary orbs in the image of a red sun and appearing in close proximity to the sun (daytime) led to the ubiquitous title ‘Beloved of Re.’ This physical association (red sun, red orb) prompted the Egyptians to adorn all kings with the title ‘Sa Re’ which means ‘Son of Re’ or ‘Offspring of Re.’ A perfectly natural title given the stellar connection that formed part of the royal titulary.

Pepy II

  • ‘Beautiful is the Double (ka) of Re.’ Two glorious red orbs in the sky above. Re, the red sun, the perennial father to all red orbs including the primary red disk of ‘Mars, the god of war.’ This is the very reason why the red disk dominates Egyptian art.


  • ‘Beautiful and Strong Champion.’

Mentuhotep (Mars)

  • ‘The War God Montu is Content.’ Pharaonic Mars at war thus pleasing the astral war god Montu.
  • ‘Pleased is the Lord of Re.’ or ‘The Voice of Re.’Astral kings ruling by the authority of Re.

Mentuhotep II (Mars)

  • ‘Giving Life to the Ka (double) of Re.’

Mentuhotep IV (Mars)

  • ‘Re’s Lord of the Two Lands.’ As proposed in my first book the ‘Two Lands’ of ‘Upper and Lower Egypt’ have nothing whatsoever to do with the north and south of Egypt as per the conventional belief. With childlike naivety ancient cultures perceived the blackness of space as a fixed land mass canopying earth and the ‘Two Lands’ were quite simply heaven and earth – two fixed land masses – two Egypt’s, one up one down, hence we have Upper and Lower Egypt. The celestial kings ‘unified’ the ‘Two Lands’ by traversing and occupying the intermediate space between. Mentuhotep/Mars was just one of many godly kings who were ‘Re’s Lord of the Two Lands.’

Amenemhet I (Mars)

  • ‘Amun is at the Head.’ The Solar Wind slamming into Mars producing intense auroral manifestations (Amun) at the head of Mars.
  • ‘The One who Appeases the Heart of Re’ Mars/Amenemhet seemingly appeasing Re.

Sesostris I (also Senusret) (Moon)

  • ‘The Soul (ka) of Re comes into Being. ‘The Moon glowing red mimicking the sun.

Amenemhet II (Mars)

  • ‘Golden is the Kas (doubles) of Re.’ Unlike the Red Sun, the planetary monarchy periodically appeared as golden orbs, especially during the New Kingdom when the planets migrated sun side i.e. visible during the day. This being the very reason why a Golden Horus name was added to the royal titulary. I would suggest the use of ‘kas’ in the plural denotes Amenemhet/Mars appeared golden many times.

Amenemhet III (Mars)

  • ‘Belonging to (or upholding) the Justice of Re.’ It was the role of all astral kings to vanquish the forces of evil and uphold justice of the eternal Sun. God kings were all depencers of divine justice through Re. It was believed without the pharaoh the whole universe would fall into chaos. This is because the god kings were constantly observed battling up countless tons of space debris (See; Pharaonic Battles), seemingly clearing the heavens for a safe passage to the afterlife in the parallel world above as a star (Upper Egypt).

Sesostris II (Moon)

  • ‘The Shining Manifestation of Re.’ A physical description of a body shining like the Sun. How can a human being be a shining manifestation of the sun? Numerous kings adopted this ‘shining’ trait, pretty much as you would expect.

Sesostris III (Moon)

  • ‘Appearing/Shining like the Kas (doubles) of Re.’


  • ‘Protecting the Two Lands like Re.’ As above, the two lands were heaven and earth. The red Sun was the perpetual guardian of the two lands. The ‘Sons of Re’ by their very location protected and unified Upper and Lower Egypt like Re.

Amenemhet IV (Mars)

  • ‘True of Voice as Re.’

Ameny Intef

  • ‘The Heart of Re Lives.’

Sobekhotep II

  • ‘Powerful of Re, Protector of the Two Lands.’


  • ‘The ka of Re is Powerful.’


  • Pleasing to the God Sobek.’
  • ‘Powerful as Re, He makes the Two Lands Flourish.’


  • ‘Beautiful and Pleasing.’
  • ‘Powerful is the Ka (double) of Re.’

Sobekhotep IV

  • ‘Appearing Beautiful Like Re.’


  • ‘Seeing as the Heart of Re’.


  • ‘Strong is the Love of Re’.


  • ‘Powerful like Re.’

Apepi I and II

  • ‘Great and Powerful like Re’ Great and powerful like the Sun.

Intef VII

  • ‘Golden is the Manifestation of Re.’ A planetary body, the manifestation of the sun appearing golden in colour.

Tao I-II

  • ‘Perpetuated like Re’ A planetary body rising and setting just like the Sun, or just seemingly eternal like Re.


  • ‘The One whom Re has made Valiant.’
  • ‘Who strikes like Re.’

Kamose (Moon)

  • ‘Flourishing is the Manifestation of Re’.
  • ‘The Strong One.’ The moon flourishing strong like the red sun.

Amose I (Moon)

  • ‘The Moon is Born.’ Literally! The slow capture of the Moon begins.
  • ‘The Strong One.’
  • ‘Possessor of the Physical Strength of Re.’

Amenhotep I (Mars)

  • ‘Amun is Pleased’ ‘Holy is the Ka of Re.’ The god of the aurora, Amun is content, pleased, satisfied (take your pick) as intense neon lights grace the heavens on a global basis. The rise to prominence of Amun as ‘King of the Gods’ paralleling the rise of incessant geomagnetic storms dominating the heavens, night and day!

Tuthmosis I (Moon)

  • ‘Born of the God Thoth.’ The Moon as the Luna deity Thoth magnifies in size, so much so it is deemed a god king of Egypt.
  • ‘Made by Re.’
  • ‘The Choice of Re.’
  • ‘Loved by Re.’
  • ‘Made Great by Re.’
  • ‘Appearing in Glory like Re.’ The Moon/Tuthmosis predominantly appearing as an incandescent red orb looming large in the sky as its slow erratic capture continues (300 years plus?). Thus it is naturally perceived as ‘appearing like,’ ‘made by,’ and the ‘choice of Re.’ The red Moon/Tuthmosis is ‘Loved by Re’ as he tracks the red Sun across the sky during the day. Something it periodically does today, but due to the Sun’s glare you have to be aware of the Luna cycle or have pretty sharp eye. This was not so in ancient times, there was no glare, this granted visibility to numerous bodies, dust and debris throughout the day. Many bodies would seemingly follow the Sun across the sky (‘followers of Re’), or at the very least they inhabited Re’s domain (daytime) this led to numerous New Kingdom pharaohs adopting the epithet ‘The choice of Re.’ This is a clear acknowledgement that it was in fact Re (Sun) who decided who was to be king. Note; the Moon also periodically appeared blue, golden, white, etc. as too did Mars, Venus and Mercury.


Tuthmosis II (Moon)

  • ‘Born of the God Thoth.’
  • ‘Great is the Form of Re.’

Hatshepsut (Venus)

  • ‘Foremost of the Noble Women’
  • ‘Just and Full of Vitality like the Sun.’ or ‘ Truth/Order/Balance (“Ma’at”) is the Spirit/Double(“ka”) of Ra.’ (Thus proving that “ka” can mean “double”- click here for ref.)
  • ‘Like a God She Brings Peace and Prosperity to Egypt’
  • ‘Her Beauty is Unsurpassed.’ Size matters! Hatshepsut/Venus crosses the orbit of earth contributing to the Dark Age of circa 1,200 B.C. Comet Venus having previously been content to remain in the background as the ‘kings great wife’ now looms extremely large in the heavens. She outsize’s both Mars/Senenmut and the Moon/Tuthmosis III so much so that she is declared not queen but king of Egypt – ‘The Female Falcon.’ This unprecedented state of affairs doesn’t last long though. Fortunately the Moon as Tuthmosis III takes the throne and the status quo of fearless male warrior kings ‘smiting the enemy’ returns.
  • ‘God’s Wife of Amun’
  • ‘She Who Embraces Amun’
  • ‘United With Amun.’ Hatshepsut/Venus appearing amidst the intense geomagnetic storms of Amun (‘One whose true form could never be known’). Numerous NK queens would go on to adopt the ‘god’s wife’ or ‘hand of god’ (to Amun/aurora) title. This is Comet Venus appearing amidst auroral manifestations which dominated the heavens. Geomagnetic storms which were also periodically observed during the day courtesy of a hazed red Sun. God king planets also appeared amidst the Aurora/Amun – they adopted the corresponding ‘Beloved of Amun’ title.

Tuthmosis III (Moon)

  • ‘Lasting is the Manifestation of Re.’
  • ‘Beautiful of Shape.’
  • ‘Beautiful of Being.’
  • ‘Divine Ruler.’
  • ‘Master of Power.’ or ‘Strong of Power.’ Very apt titles as the Moon/Tuthmosis would go on to be the Napoleon of Egyptian history as Moon/Tuthmosis battled up countless tons of space debris encircling earth.

Amenhotep II (Mars)

  • ‘Great is the Manifestation of Re.’

Tuthmosis IV (Moon)

  • ‘Established by the Shape of Re.’
  • ‘Made by Re.’
  • ‘Choice of Re.’
  • ‘Loved by Re.’
  • ‘Shining of Appearances’ The context here is unequivocal, it clearly refers to a kingly planet ‘appeared in glory, shining as the sun at dawn.’ It is supported by the hieroglyphs where the sign used is that of the sun, appearing above the horizon.

Amenhotep III (Mars)

  • ‘Lord of the Truth of Re.’ In the sense that ‘He (Amenhotep/Mars) who has mastered the ‘Truth of Re.’
  • ‘Image of Re.’
  • ‘Heir of Re.’
  • ‘Made by Re.’
  • ‘Son of Re’ All kings in inhabiting the domain of the sun were ‘Son of Re,’ offspring of the sun.
  • ‘The Dazzling Sun-Disk of All Lands.’ Could this be any more revealing? Electromagnetic forces slowly begin to extract Mars’ core from the body of Amenhotep/Mars. The energy released in the form of light deems Amenhotep/Mars as ‘a dazzling sun-disk of all lands’

Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten (Mars)

  • ‘Image of the Aten.’
  • ‘Soul One of Re.’
  • ‘Made Beautiful by the Shape of Re’.
  • ‘Great as He Arises.’ Hardly a reference to the king getting out of bed!
  • ‘Servant of the Aten’ The solid iron core of Mars/Amenhotep exits through the Valles Marineris, a second glorious sun disk is born. We know this orb as Mercury, the Egyptians called it the ‘disk of the sun’ or the Aten. ‘The disk of Re’ translation should be taken at face value as the blinding light from the Aten/Mercury blots out the red sun (Re), the afterlife (night sky), and all other sky gods including the aurora/Amun. In the absence of these traditional deities monotheism makes a brief appearance as the Aten/Mercury becomes the one and only god – the new sun or ‘Disk of Re.’ Monotheism doesn’t last long, the Aten/Mercury rapidly cools down, its light diminishes bringing back into view the red sun (Re), the firmament above and Egypt’s tradition gods – the old order resumes. Mercury becomes an incandescent red orb and joins the royal bloodline of celestial kings. The whole Mercury from Mars comes to us via the Amarna Period, a brief (approx. 20 years) but significant epoch in Egyptian history. During the Amarna period the energy (light) from the Aten/Mercury shines on its parent body Mars/Akhenaten, thus Akhenaten/Mars, becomes subservient to the Aten. To put it another way, for a brief period, Akhenaten/Mars was the ‘Servant of the Aten.’

Actually, The name Akhenaten (Mars) could also mean “Illuminated Manifestation of the Aten.” (D. Redford, The Oxford University Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, p. 157). Akhenaten Mars the illuminated manifestation of the Aten Mercury – a more than perfect description of Mars in the image of Mercury! (end of addition).

Nefertiti (Venus)

  • ‘The Beautiful One has Arrived’ Queen Venus enters the arena, or at the very least undergoes another name change due to its attributes and location.
  • ‘Heiress, Great of Favours, Possessed of Charm, Exuding Happiness, Mistress of Sweetness, Beloved One, Soothing the King’s Heart in His House, Soft-spoken in All, Mistress of Upper and Lower Egypt, Great King’s Wife, Whom He Loves, Lady of the Two Lands, Nefertiti.’ A very apt description of the beautiful planet Venus.

Smenkhkare (Venus?)

  • ‘Vigorous is the Ka (double) of Re’
  • ‘Ennobled by the Ka of Re.’
  • ‘Holy of Shape/Manifestations’
  • ‘Living Through the Shape of Re.’
  • ‘Loved by Akhenaten.’ This is a body appearing very close to Mars/Akhenaten. The Amarna period (birth of the Aten/Mercury) was very shadowy period as you would expect but its more than likely Smenkhkare was a guise of Venus.

Tutankhaten/Tutankhamun (Mars)

  • ‘Living Image of the Aten.’ Mars/Tutankh-aten initially takes on the image of the Aten/Mercury, however, as the Aten rapidly cools (resulting in Mercury’s Lobate Scarps) and the old order returns. The aurora/Amun, having been blotted out for 20 years once again begins to dominate ancient skies with a vengeance. In doing so, the aurora god Amun reclaims his exalted status as ‘The King of the Gods.’ Mars is observed enveloped by auroral manifestations – the terrestrial Egyptians duly rename Tut-ankh-Aten to Tutankh-amun ‘Living Image of Amun.’
  • ‘Lord of the Manifestations/Shape of Re.’
  • ‘Perfect God, likeness of Re, Who Appears Over Foreign Lands Like the Rising of Re,’
  • ‘He Who is Fully Reborn Each Month.’ (KMT Vol 20 p38)



  • ‘Everlasting are the Manifestations of Re.’
  • ‘Radiant of Appearances.’

Horemheb (Moon)

  • ‘Ruler in Truth.’
  • ‘Horus is in Jubilation.’ As discussed above, all astral kings were the embodiment of the ‘good and just’ falcon god Horus (Heru = ‘he who is above’). This has led to much confusion among catastrophists in that Horus could be Mars, Mercury or the Moon (or other bodies that have since disappeared). It all depended on which king was the more dominant in the sky. Horus was the guardian of the ruling god king and the largest body (from earth’s POV) was naturally deemed king and he would be the embodiment of Horus (Least, that’s the simple version).
  • ‘Holy is the Manifestation/Shape of Re, Chosen of Re.’
  • ‘Loved by Amun.’ The Moon/Horemheb chosen by the Sun, and loved by Amun (aurora) as intense geomagnetic storms are observed enveloping the Moon and earth’s skies.

Ramesses I (Mars)

  • ‘Fashioned by Re.’
  • ‘Established by the Strength of Re.’
  • ‘The Good God, the Likeness of Re Who Shines on the Two Lands like the Horizon-Dweller.’

Seti (Mercury)

  • ‘He of the God Seth.’ Seth was the god of chaos, the adversary to the ‘good and just’ god Horus. Everything bad was associated with the god Seth: winds, storms, chaos, darkness, war, conflict and confusion. It is no coincidence given the untold destruction caused by the genesis of Mercury that one of the first pharaonic names given to Mercury (initially the Aten) after it cooled down sufficiently enough to take on the traditional incandescent red disk form was ‘He of the god Seth.’ Whether planetary kings were perceived to take on the attributes of good or evil, in an act of appeasement both had to be venerated.
  • ‘Repetition of Births.’ The best you’ll get from Egyptologists is this title means the pharaoh Seti inaugurated some kind of renaissance – a poor understanding of ancient minds. A much more plausible and face value interpretation gives us Seti/Mercury appearing to reborn several times over. Perhaps Seti/Mercury morphed between a red (living god) and black (Seth) orb as it extended its resonance orbit with earth. An analogy would be an undersea lava tube bursting forward with scorching hot molten lava, only in Mercury’s case we have boiling hot liquid ‘iron/nickel’ bursting through the rapidly cooling surface, if you see what I mean.
  • ‘Loved by Ptah.’ I associated Ptah, a god of the afterlife and the land above with Jupiter, and to be ‘loved’ or ‘chosen’ by Ptah is a planetary king, in this case Seti/Mercury appearing in conjunction with the very luminous Jupiter/Ptah. Jupiter appearing considerably brighter than today having previously just given birth to Venus (Circa 3,000 BC?)
  • “The Good God (Seti), the Star of the Land, at whose Appearance Everyone Lives, I was with him, Like a Star at his Side (Ramesses I).” (ref)This is Seti/Mercury reigning (co-regency) alongside Ramesses/Mars – this paralleling the historical account. As with all of my research, all I’m actually doing is transferring history up above where it belongs!

Ramesses II (Mars)

There were at least 13 pharaohs named Ramesses. They all share similar epithets and rather than list all the Ramesses separately its probably better to present a collection of their epithets below. After all they were all guises of Mars.

  • ‘Re Has Fashioned Him.’
  • ‘Thou art Re, thy Body is his Body.’
  • ‘The Re of Rulers.’
  • ‘Lord of the Two Lands’ (heaven and earth)
  • ‘Lo, I (Ramesses) was Re over the People.. ‘As above, the sun god Re was perceived to have created the red disk of Mars/Ramesses.
  • ‘Ruler of Justice like Re.’
  • ‘Powerful by the Truth of Re. Countless and successive kings adopted this name – a planetary body, powerful by the truth of the Sun.
  • ‘Loved by Amun.’ Auroral manifestations filling the heavens and seen around the body of Mars (cause, the solar wind) leading to the ubiquitous tile ‘Loved by Amun.’ The New Kingdom would see dozens of kings adorned with this particular title. Other variant close and personal ‘Amun’ tiles include;
    • ‘Continuously Loved by Amun.’
    • ‘The Choice of Amun.’
    • ‘Made Glorious by Amun.’
    • ‘Amun is his Strength’

      All find their true meaning with the aurora.


Nefertari (Venus)

  • ‘The Most Beautiful.’
  • ‘Beautiful Face.’
  • ‘Appeasing the Gods.’
  • ‘Pretty with the Two Feathers.’ An illusion to Venus appearing with an enormous plumed cometary tail.’ Many NK queens adopted this title

    (See Comet Venus).


  • ‘Beloved of Ptah, Joyous of Truth.’ An offspring of Ramesses/Mars (Iron ‘debris’ from Mercury’s birth) aligns with Jupiter/Ptah, hence ‘Beloved of Ptah.’
  • ‘The Soul of Re, Beloved of the Gods.’


  • ‘Fashioned by Amun.’ We also have to take into account Amun’s most sacred colour was blue. Many bodies periodically appeared blue. Thus a body taking on a blue hue would be considered ‘Fashioned by Amun.’ This is very similar to the red sun ‘fashioning’ the red orb of Ramesses i.e. ‘Fashioned by Re.’

Queen Twosret (Venus)

  • ‘Mighty Lady.’
  • ‘Daughter of Amun, Beloved of Re.’


  • ‘Victorious is Seth, Beloved of Amun.’ A body utilizing evil to reign over Egypt.
  • ‘Powerful are the Manifestations of Re, Chosen by Re.’

Ramesses VIII (Mars)

  • ‘Seth is his Strength, Beloved of Amun.’

Ramesses XI (Mars)

  • ‘The Justice of Re Remains, ‘Beloved of Amun.’


  • ‘Horus Protects Me, Son of Amun.’ Many ‘Horus’ bodies appeared amidst the aurora, they were thus perceived as offspring of Amun.


  • ‘He who Belongs to the Pleasant One (Horus or Ptah), Beloved of Amun.’
  • ‘The Ka of Re Appears/shines, Chosen of Amun.’

Smendes I

  • ‘Bright is the Manifestation of Re, Chosen of Re.’ A very common title.

Psusennes I

  • ‘The Star that Appears in Thebes, Beloved of Amun.’ Psusennes appearing as a star above Thebes.


  • ‘Like a God is the Manifestation of Re, Chosen of Amun.’

Psusennes I

  • ‘The Image of the Transformations of Re.’


  • ‘Beloved of Amun.’
  • ‘Bright is the Manifestation of Re.’
  • ‘The Manifestation of Re Rules, Chosen of Re.’
  • ‘Powerful by the Truth of Re.’


  • ‘The Manifestation/Form/image of Re Abides.’


  • ‘Carrying out the Wish of Re Forever.’


  • ‘Offspring of Re.’


  • ‘Likeness of Re.’

Alexander the Great

  • ‘Beloved of Amun, Chosen by Re.’

Yes, I’m even suggesting that Alexander the Great was a guise of a planetary body (possibly Mars?)

He was ‘Beloved of the Aurora, Chosen by the Sun.’

There is so much more to this – indeed, I have omitted many kingly names as they are only repeats of the above.

In summary I would like to pose a very simple question.

Fact: It is well known and well attested to, that ancient Egypt’s more prominent gods were stellar in nature. A stance no doubt deriving from epithets such as:

Re (Ra) The Sun.

  • ‘Re is the great light who shinest in the heavens’
  • ‘lord of all lands… praise Re when he riseth at the beginning of each day’
  • ‘Thou passest over the sky, and every face watcheth thee and thy course, for thou hast been hidden from their gaze. Thou dost show thyself at dawn and at eventide day by day’ (BOD).


(Ecliptic haze/band/line that as ‘mythology’ (I would argue history) records many times gave birth to the god kings as well as escorting them to the afterlife above).

  • ‘Praise to you, Isis, the Great One, God’s mother, Lady of Heaven, Mistress and Queen of the gods.’ (Temple of Isis at Philae).

Hathor (Earth’s ring(s) of debris).

  • ‘Lady of the sky’
  • ‘Daughter of Re’
  • ‘Mistress of Heaven’
  • ‘Lady of the Stars’
  • ‘Lady to the limit of the Universe.’

Horus (Guardian of the planetary kings).

The fact that he was a falcon-god should be enough to determine he was a sky god!

  • ‘Lord of the Sky.’
  • ‘Horus of the Horizons.’
  • ‘One who is above/over.’
  • ‘Horus risen as a star.’

And so on and so forth with numerous other Egyptian deities.

The question is this:

Egypt’s divine monarchy adopted similar (if not the same) stellar epithets to that of its more prominent gods and yet our text books dictate that the god kings of ancient Egypt were uniquely human, why is this? Wouldn’t it make more sense to adopt the same cosmological criteria for both Pharaoh and god? In other words, if it is stated that the king ‘Rose and Shone like the Sun,’ shouldn’t we take this title at face value, just as is done with Re’s ‘Rising and Shining’ epithets?

Source for many of the above names and suggested reading.

Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs. (Tut’s ‘Lord of the forms of Re’). (Ramesses ‘Established by the strength of Re’). (‘Brilliant’ or ‘Shining’).

The Cartouche Names of the New Kingdom By Sjef Willockx (Highly recommended).

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