The Crux of the GKS – Egyptian Dualism (gks 1)

The ba

Ba Bird Afterlife

The ba bird in the act of transferring ones personality

The ba was considered to be an individual’s distinctive manifestation similar to our concept of personality. It comprised all non-physical attributes which made a human unique. It was the entire deceased person with its own identity and was not separate from the body. In Ptolemaic and Roman times it was said of the deceased: “May his ba live before Osiris.” The ba was depicted as a human headed bird (the head of the deceased) with human arms and the ba-bird could assume whatever shape it wished.

Having identified the ka, the ba is self explanatory. It was necessary for the deceased to journey from their tomb to unite with their ka if they were to be transformed into an akh (star, Osirian). As the physical body could not do this, it was the job of the individual’s ba to do this. After death, the ba-bird collected the deceased’s personality from the mummified remains and took it to be reunited with the deceased’s physical astral twin. Only after this union, when a person was complete, was it possible for them to be reborn as an ‘effective one’ in the next world, the black land (kmt) of space. The image above depicts a persons ba in the process of transferring its personality from the deceased for a union with its ka.

Although not entirely clear, it seems that the process of transferring ones manifestation took time, with the ba flitting between the mummified remains and the ka to ensure every aspect of its humanity was transferred to its double above. It was therefore helpful for the perfectly persevered body to lie in state in its tomb. This gave the ba-bird plenty of time to relocate every aspect of the deceased person’s personality as it carried out its duty. This time-span was probably adopted from observations of the Horus Mars as it was slowly wrapped in white linen (like a spiral galaxy) as it moved away from Earth. Mummification and the wrapping of acres of linen bandages around the deceased came about as a direct result of such observations (The black jackal headed god Anubis coming into play here).

The bird form was chosen because of its ability to navigate land, sea, air and space, although the Egyptians were unaware that space was devoid of air. They believed that conditions above were similar to those on Earth, particularly in relation to Upper Egypt which was exactly the same as Earth, only better. The Egyptians believed all astral bodies were living kas. After death, it made sense to use the ba-bird as a manifestation of oneself to provide a direct link to ones ka. Dying was referred to as going to one’s ka.

Once the ba and ka were united and the astral twin was complete, a final journey to the Next World was undertaken. This was a journey fraught with dangers as the body traveled from a chaotic intermediate location to the relative tranquility of heaven. Chaos posed an ever-present threat in the transitional location and Egyptians therefore needed assistance. Magical funerary spells and amulets were used to help guarantee a safe passage. Known as the Book of the Dead, spells were written on papyri and placed in coffins or were put in magical amulets and wrapped in mummy bandages. Much time and resources were spent assisting the dead to the Next World where they were transformed into the ultimate form – that of an immortal akh.

The akh (star)

Egyptian Afterlife Stars

Becoming A Star

The akh was the fully resurrected and glorified form of the deceased in the next world. An akh was regarded as enduring and unchanging for all eternity and it was the goal of every Egyptian to become one. The word akh means an “effective one” or “powerful one.” The Egyptians believed the imperishable stars were akhs, the ancestors of those who had passed before them. Once a person had successfully become an akh they could guide their loved ones on Earth. It was believed that the akh could reach beyond the limits of the afterlife to have both positive and negative effects in the realm of the mortal world. The drawing on the left clearly depicts the whole process of becoming a star.

Below are typical Egyptian stars to be found on many tomb ceilings. This is a very unusual way to draw a star, this is because it represents the limbs and head of a human being i.e. two arms, two legs and the head.

Egyptian stars – transposed Egyptians, real people

Egyptian stars – transposed Egyptians, real people ‘resting’ (sleeping) in the abode above. Nefertari’s (Venus) tomb.

It always surprises me that the Egyptian belief in the transformation of humans into stars after death is brushed aside as a bizarre belief which cannot be explained. Yet this belief provides invaluable information – the Egyptians were not only showing themselves transposed as stars, but they were also revealing the location of their next world. This was the hemispherical blackness of space which canopied the four corners of Earth. It was the Next World which all ancient cultures were obsessed with and which all aspired to be reborn in.

The meaning of akh as effective one or powerful one should be regarded as a descriptive name or title. This is because, although the name refers to the stars above, they were individual humans and each maintained their own distinct personalities and individual names. These were the traits and names given to them while they were on Earth.


The world as seen through Egyptian eyes

The world as seen through Egyptian eyes. The Egyptians believed that at birth, two of them were created − an earthly form and a sky double or ka which dwelt in the intermediate space between heaven and Earth − Upper and Lower Egypt. After they died, and by means of the ba bird transferring their personality, the earthly form would unite with its astral double to undertake a final and hazardous journey to a very real firmament above. Here a life of immortality was attained among the stars. This entire afterlife ‘next world’ belief was a direct result of planetary bodies, in the guise of god kings, traversing between our ‘flat’ Earth and the hemispherical dome of heaven.

To my knowledge at least two major religions, Catholicism and Islam hold the same basic ‘dual’ belief i.e. when a person is born two entities of the same person are created, the physical form and a soul, and after death, as with the Egyptians, a union takes place enabling the completed form to attain a life immortal in the heavens.

Here we have direct borrowings from early Egyptian beliefs only eons of time has seen the understanding of ka or soul and indeed heaven itself to become lost. Planetary bodies no longer move back and forth between two fixed lands, cosmic chaos has all but subsided; the gods have retreated and left mankind to fend for himself – astral doubles or souls are now an invisible force, a spiritual life form and science has now deemed the black land (kemet) above to have infinite qualities, it is no longer a bowl shaped firmament covering the earth – both heaven and soul are now truly in the eye and mind of the beholder.


Egyptian Dualism HeavenI’m not actually deviating from the convention line of thought. This can be gleaned from the Stela of Ramesses II in the Brooklyn Museum, New York (left). The accompanying text speaks for itself and fully corroborates my heaven and earth proposal above.

Accompanying information taken from the museum.

Stela of Ramesses II 19th Dynasty XIX, reign of Ramesses II (circa 1279-1213 B.C.) Excavated by the Egypt Exploration Society in the forecourt of the temple at Amarah West in Nubia in 1939. Sandstone 39.420, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund.

This stela commemorates King Ramesses II’s presentation of statues to a temple of Amun-Re in Nubia. The arrangement of scenes and text symbolizes the ancient Egyptians’ conception of their highly structured state. Heaven appears at the top, with the sacred world of the gods beneath it, followed by text linking the divine and human realms, and, at the bottom, the terrestrial home of the Egyptian populace.

The stela’s curved upper margin represents the vault of heaven separating the ordered universe from chaos. Ma’at (universal order) governs everything below the arc, whether depicted in the pictures or mentioned in the texts. The upper register shows an event in the gods’ domain: the presentation of symbols of kingship to Ramesses II by Amun-Re, the principal god of Egypt during the New Kingdom. The five lines of text beneath this scene stand between the worlds of gods and humans. Part of the text specifies the five names Ramesses II used as ruler, emphasizing his more-than-human qualities. The remainder recounts the king’s many offerings to Egypt’s temples. The lowest register shows four birds representing the Egyptian populace paying homage to the king.

Photo credit: wallyg’s

Note the red orb above Ramesses head – this is not the Sun! The disk represents Mars as Ramesses (Embodiment of the god Horus).


The ka (double) name

The oldest known part of the royal titulary is the Horus-name Horus Name Egyptian , sometimes also called the banner-name or the KA-NAME (my capitol emphasis). It represents the king as the earthly embodiment of the god Horus, the divine prototype and patron of the Egyptian kings. This name is ordinarily written within a rectangular frame, at the bottom of which is seen a design of recessed panelling, such as we find in the facades of early tombs and in the false doors of many private tombs.

The king not only united Upper and Lower Egypt but he was also the link between the human and divine worlds. Although the king himself was a human being, the office of kingship was divine; the human body of the king was a vessel in which divine kingship manifested itself in the form of the royal ka or life force that was passed on from one king to the next. The king was similar to, though not identical with, the gods, and his titles, netjer nefer, meant ‘Perfect God.’

(Robins, G. (1997). The art of ancient Egypt. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. p 18)

Taking my stance that the ka or soul of the king was a celestial body, let us say Mars, then the above offers clear support for the notion that the body of Mars was named and renamed many times over as Egypt’s god kings. As the kings reigned over earth (literally) they were the manifestation of the sky god Horus. The largest body with respect to earth was naturally deemed the “living Horus.” This could be either Mars, Mercury or the Moon (occasionally Venus). Errant planet that danced with earth and are at the very foundation of Egypt’s divine royal family. I have dubbed these planets “Horus bodies.”

I don’t disagree with the above orthodox teachings, I merely place them in a world dominated by cosmic catastrophe and give them their true meaning!