The Egyptian Sky God Horus. Part 1 of 3. (gks 20)

The Eye of Horus

Too much to go into detail here suffice to say, in connection with the above, the ‘eye’ or ‘eyes’ of Horus (and Re) are all to do with large bodies prominently reflecting or generating their own light and thus becoming ‘whole’ or ‘complete.’ This ‘battle’ was certainly played out in the light and dark phases of the Moon in later times (further reading on the Moon during Egyptian times here). Note the “… it is uncertain that the disk of the moon was itself ever worshipped as a deity during the history of ancient Egypt,” and the confusion surrounding lunar gods in general (there were at least three). An understandable situation as our Moon was only captured during Pharaonic times – its rise to prominence parallels a slow enigmatic capture. I will address the Eye of Horus later.

Horus and the horizons

As you would expect with Horus bodies rising and setting like Re, of great importance was the horizons. These came under the authority of at least three aspects of the same Horus ‘horizon’ deity, Harmachis, ‘Horus in the horizon’ – Horakhty, ‘Horus of the horizons,’ and Re-Horakhty, ‘Re-Horus of the horizons.’ All these belong to the Horus ‘ruling the earth’ side of the god kings i.e. Haroeris, or the ‘Horus the elder’ aspect. We will discuss all three plus a bit more.

Harmachis (Horemakhet, Harmakhet) ‘Horus in the horizon’

Given the current belief that Horus was some kind of weird aspect of the Sun, many have pondered over this title, for how can it be said that the Sun was ‘in’ the horizon? ‘On’ the horizon we may understand but ‘in’ just doesn’t make sense. We may also ask the very simple question as to why the Egyptians felt the need to invent so many independent deities just to explain the simple rising and setting of the Sun.

A very straightforward explanation is as follows. Cosmic catastrophe gave way to countless tons of dust and gasses, and in addition to hazing the sun red (exactly as depicted) it also fell to earth to mix with an already dust filled atmosphere. This brought about by countless active fire breathing volcanoes (triggered by close proximity bodies) which also spewed out tons of dust and ash (god of volcanoes, Bess). This created a thick hazed band of dust around earth’s horizon. It encircled the flat pancake of earth in the north, south, east and west. Its thickness was determined by the intensity of chaos and to a certain extent it many times gave the illusion of actually intermingling with the fabric of earth.

On numerous occasions the god king planets as Horus were seen to reside in this ‘red’ curtain of haze as they spun with earth (thus appearing stationary). In other words, we have a literal translation of the Horus god Harmachis, or ‘Horus in the horizon.’

The redness of dawn is also connected to Horus, the archetype of kingship. PT 404, for instance, includes a reference to the ‘Horus of (dawn)-redness,’ and the king himself is said to be “the redness that came forth from Nut” in PT 1460a (Goebs,168). Horus is explicitly connected to red cloth in texts related to the ritual of the meret-chests at Edfu. The god is said to “…unite with the seshed-linen to overthrow your foe. You hold the red linen in its moment.”

(A. Egberts, In Quest of Meaning, 180). (ref.)

Horakhty Harakhty Harakhti

Horakhty – ‘Horus (manifest through Mars) IN the Horizon’ i.e., Mars appearing stationary ‘in’ the horizon. Note the yellowish coronal ring encircling the disk above Horus’ head (insert). I’ve done my best to recreate this around the orb in the picture. It represents the boiling hot rock vapour (silica) produced as the surface of Mars literally boiled as it was systematically torn apart – catastrophically morphing from a earth-like planet to its now frozen, barren desolate state.

Horakhty (Harakhty, Harakhti) ‘Horus of the horizons.’

(Its possible the word Horizon, Hori-zon (Hori, Hore, Heru?) derived from the name Horus)

The celestial kings as Horus incarnate presiding over the horizons i.e., red orbs rising and setting like the red Sun.

The form Harakhti or “Horus of the horizon” refers to the god rising in the east at dawn to bathe in the “field of rushes.” The Pyramid Texts mention this aspect of the god linked to the sovereign: the king is said to be born on the eastern sky as Harakhti. Also since the element -akhti can be a dual form of the noun akhet (horizon), there is a play on words when the king is given power over the “two horizons” (i.e. east and west) as Harakhti.

(Bold emphasis)

Horakhty, only god, king of the gods; he rises in the west, he sendeth his beauty –.

(Breasted vol III p II. Bold emphasis).

The inscriptions do not leave any room for misunderstanding here, it clearly states, the god Horakhty rose in the west! Given that most people accept the notion that Harakhty is some kind of aspect of the Sun, this has led many catastrophists to promote the idea that the earth somehow physically toppled over on its axis leading to the Sun rising in the west. This is incorrect; the god kings as Horus probably rose in the west on a number of occasions, and since the earth didn’t flip over they were able to write about it.

Horakhty Ankh Symbol

Horakhty offering the symbol of life to the king (spot the difference with the above Horus’).

The following inscription reveals Ramesses/Mars appeared somewhere close to the horizon above Nubia in the south (as above, so below).

Ramesses II; “He made (it) as his monument for his father, Harakhty great god, lord of Nubia.”

(Breasted vol III p 213)

Sometimes an incandescent red orb, sometimes enshrouded in dust and debris and electrical manifestations giving the illusion that Ramesses/Mars resided in a mansion or ‘great house’ above (per’ah = pharaoh = great house). The following text reveal that Ramesses/Mars as the incarnation of Horakhty (or at the very least under the authority of) set up camp in the southern skies, ‘God’s Land’ (Punt), the domain of Re.

He made (it) as his monument for his father, Horakhty; making for him the “House-of-Usermare-Meriamon (Ramesses)-in-the-House-of-Re.

(ibid p 215)

It is clear two separate deities are being spoken about here, for if Re and Horakhty were one and the same, it would simply read…

He made it as his monument for his father, Re making for him the “House-of-Ramesses-in-Re’s-House.

(the ancient Egyptians may have been naive but they were not stupid!).

The glorious temples at Abu Simbel in the far south were built as a direct result of Ramesses/Mars and his divine queen Nefertari/Venus migrating sunside (daytime) to appear in the southern skies – clearly seen during the day courtesy of a red Sun.

Horemheb (Moon)

His majesty sailed down-stream as the image of Harakhte.

(ibid p 18)

Source and further reading.

Hart, G. 1986. A Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses. London: Routledge/Kegan Paul.

Wilkinson, R. H. 2003. The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. London: Thames and Hudson.

Wallis, E.A. Budge 1969. The Gods of the Egyptians , vol 1. New York: Dover Books

Ancient Egypt Online.

Ancient Egypt.

Henadology Philosophy and Theology.


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