Amun was the Aurora (gks 14)

Amun and Warfare

Egypt was ruled by Amun through the pharaohs – he aided them in battle and kings were given the epithet ‘Amun is his strength.’ Tuthmosis III (Moon) was said to have marched under the banner of Amun, with ‘Amun on his side’. Amun was therefore known as the ‘the king who maketh kings to rule.’

“His majesty (Tuthmosis) commanded to cause to be recorded his victories which his father, Amun, gave to him…”

“His majesty went forth in a chariot of electrum, arrayed in his weapons of war, like Horus, the Smiter, lord of power; like Montu of Thebes, while his father, Amun, strengthened his arms.”

“This army offered acclamations to his majesty! Giving praise to Amun for the victories which he gave to his son (Tuthmosis).”

“….from the first of the victories which he (Amun) gave me, in order to fill his storehouse…”

The following inscription concerns Tuthmosis I (Moon) ‘Universal triumph’

“I made the boundaries of Egypt as far as that which the sun encircles. I made strong those who were in fear; I repelled the evil from them. I made Egypt the superior of every land […] favourite of Amun, Son of Re, of his body, his beloved Thutmose (I), Shining like Re, beloved of Osiris, First of the Westerners; Great God, lord of Abydos, ruler of eternity; given life, stability, satisfaction, and health, while shining as King upon the Horus-throne of the living; and joy of his heart, together with his ka, like Re, forever.” (my bold emphasis).”

Note the following concerning Tuthmosis I: ‘I made the boundaries […] as far as that which the sun encircles’, and ‘Shining like Re.’. These expressions refer to planetary bodies and not humans. Mesopotamian god king planets also adorned similar titles as with the king Narem Suen who was “King of the Universe” and “King of the Four Regions.” (link).

“He (Amun) hath given to him the south as well as north, west, and east.”

“I have worked a marvel for thee; I have given to thee might and victory against all countries.”

(Source Breasted Vol II)

The following images depict Amun handing the symbol of invincibility, the khepesh sword to the king.

Seti Battle Scene

Seti/Mercury fighting the Hittites (Credit: Jon Bosworth)

In the picture above, the large figure of Seti is ritually massacring prisoners before Amun (centre) who hands Seti (Mercury) the khepesh sword. Such reliefs recorded incredible battles in the heavens. This image provides a snapshot of Seti/Mercury as he fearlessly charged headlong into countless tons of foreign bodies that threatened to bring the whole universe into chaos. These battles occurred under the protection of the god ‘whose true form could never be known,’ the Aurora/Amun.

The majority of Egypt’s deities were sky gods. Many gods (such as Amun) were depicted caressing and embracing the royal family as part of a very close and personal relationship. Despite this, Egyptologists fail to grasp that heavenly gods and the monarchy were depicted together because they both inhabited the sky – the realm of the gods.

Montu God EgyptThe picture on the left depicts Montu (also Mont, Month, Monthu) the war god

To my knowledge Amun is never shown smiting an enemy. The kings ruled under his authority and he is shown handing them the weapons of war, but he never vanquishes an enemy himself. There were times when the Aurora looked and acted in an aggressive manner (red aurora), which was consistent with the predominantly placid nature of the Aurora. It was the kings who physically smote the enemies of Egypt, not Amun, and in doing so they invoked the warrior god Montu.

Montu is commonly depicted as a man with the head of a falcon surmounted by a solar disk. He wore the double uraeus with two tall plumes extending vertically behind. He was later associated with the bull cults such as Buchis at Armant, and so he is depicted with the head of a bull and a plumed, red-disked headdress. Another bull sacred to Montu was also worshipped at Medamud and his weapon was the spear.

I regard Montu as the personification of aggression. He represented the military aspects and warring characteristics of the king as he was observed during times of intense geomagnetic storms, hence the wearing of the auroral plumes. Amun was the omnipresent Aurora who granted kingship and the right to govern while the warring traits of planetary bodies within Amun were embodied in the war-god Montu. The following inscription gives us a better understanding of this relationship:

“His majesty went forth in a chariot of electrum, arrayed in his weapons of war, like Horus, the Smiter, lord of power; like Montu of Thebes, while his father, Amon, strengthened his arms.” (Breasted)

This describes three separate sky deities; Horus, the embodiment of kingship and the deity who protected the kings for 3,000 years; Montu, the warring aspect of the kings during intense geomagnetic storms; and the omnipresent Amun who was described as ‘strengthening his arms’ – perhaps indicating that a straight blue cometary tail was observed (or possible numerous ionized tails or ‘arms’).

Many of the more war-like pharaohs referred to Montu, for example Ramesses III (Mars) at Medinet Habu.

“Year 5 under the majesty of Horus: Mighty Bull, extending Egypt, Mighty of sword, strong-armed, slayer of the Tehenu, Wearer of the Double Diadem; Mighty in strength like his father Montu…” (Ibid)

Nessu-Montu lead campaigns against the Bedouins.

“… I overthrew the strongholds of the nomads as if they had never been. I coursed through the field. I went forth before those who were behind their defences, without my equal therein, by command of Montu, to him who followed the plan of…” (Ibid)

By the New Kingdom, the 18th Dynasty pharaohs, some of whom followed a very military tradition, sought to emulate Montu. For example, the Gebel Barkal Stele of Tuthmosis III, often referred to as the Napoleon of Egypt, describes the king as ‘a valiant Montu on the battlefield’. Later in the New Kingdom, he became so personally identified with Ramesses II that a cult statue bearing the king’s throne name, Usermaare Setepenre, and the epithet, ‘Montu in the Two Lands’, was venerated in Ramesses II’s honour during his lifetime. When kings such as Ramesses II are referred to as ‘mighty bulls’, they are claiming an association with Montu as his son (source: Touregypt).

Other sky kings incorporated Montu’s name into theirs. For example, Montuhotep which means Montu is content. This is obviously an elusion to the warring aspect of Mars.

Ramesses Mars Amun

Ramesses/Mars subservient to the omnipresent aurora hence the adoption of the common title “beloved of Amun.”
(Photo Credit: Jon Bosworth)

Amun Embrace Pharaoh

Auroral (Amun) manifestations embracing a Pharaonic planet.
(Photo credit: Jon Bosworth)

Ramesses Offering Amun

Ramesses/Mars offering to the aurora/Amun
Credit: Wikipedia Commons

Note the disk atop the pharaohs crown – this is disk of Mars. The blue crown reveals Mars also appeared blue. The transparent clothing represents Mars as seen through the haze of dust and debris littering the skies. The traditional red flesh signifies the more common coloured red Mars.

In short we have Mars losing its volatiles amidst the aurora, this personified as the planetary pharaoh offering to aurora/amun. As Mars was torn apart from its once earth like state it would make many volatile ‘offerings’ to a wide variety of sky gods including the aurora.

Links to some great Aurora images:

You Tube Aurora/Amun:


The Ram Headed aspect of Amun



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