Amun was the Aurora (gks 14)

Amun and Kingship

Amun Ram FormAmun Ram Aurora

Statues of Amun in the form of a ram protecting the Pharaoh (Credit: © Trustees of the British Museum)

The statues on above depict the Aurora enveloping the astral kings – a representation of ‘Chosen by Amun’. Amun’s temple at Karnak is lined with avenues of ram-headed sphinxes that protected the king in this way. It is reasonable to assume the ram was used to represent the ability to protect as well as fertility. I believe the fleece was used to represent a more concentrated form of the Aurora, possibly on the horizon and to the south. The ram’s ability to negotiate cosmic mountains would be another factor.

The Egyptians believed that some kings were created by Amun, such as Pharaoh Amenmesses which translated as ‘Fashioned by Amun’. This was a planetary body (Mars) which was either born amidst the Aurora or a body adorned with auroral traits.

Tutankhamun's Golden ThroneTutankhamun was the ‘Living image of Amun’ and this is confirmed by the imagery and Amun’s sacred colour blue. The image on the left is Tutankhamun’s throne. The whole scene is one of personified planets and astral events.The flesh is coloured the traditional deep red (red Mars) and the wig is a very unusual, vibrant blue. It is perplexing that experts do not question such elaborate attire and headgear. I propose this is a symbolic representation of Mars with numerous orbiting bodies. The deep red flesh represented red Mars while the vivid blue wig signified Mars at it appeared at the time – it was predominantly blue due to the effects of the solar wind or light refraction.

We have established that blue was the sacred colour of Amun – Tutankhamun/Mars was the ‘living image of Amun’. In a similar vein the name Amenemhet, which was given to a Middle Kingdom pharaoh, translated as ‘Amun is at the head’. Amun is at the head of what? Perhaps the ‘blue’ of Amun was observed at the head of Mars. The name Amenhotep means ‘Amun is pleased’ or ‘Amun at peace’. This title referred to the Aurora as it appeared to be at peace and many pharaohs were named after this phenomenon.


Hatshepsut's Coronation AmunAccording to ancient Egyptian theology, Amun was the physical father of the king. The Pharaoh and Amun enjoyed a symbiotic relationship and the king derived his power from Amun. As ‘Lord of the two crowns,’ it was Amun that gave the kings their authority to reign over Egypt.

Right: The top section of Hatshepsut’s Obelisk from Karnak

I believe the female queen Hatshepsut (‘Just and full of vitality like the Sun’) was identified with Venus, as were 98% of all queens. This identification occurred when Hatshepsut/Venus came so close to Earth that it outsized and outranked all other bodies. Such an exalted position demanded she be worshiped not as queen, but as a king of Egypt, Hatshepsut was depicted as a male wearing the traditional false beard and kilt of Egyptian kings.

The scenes carved on Hatshepsut’s obelisk commemorated the rise of Venus to kingship. The top section depicts the double plumed god Amun (the Aurora) placing the crown of kingship on Hatshepsut/Venus. The scene on the lower left section of the obelisk was second only to Hatshepsut’s coronation and shows Amun and Hatshepsut in what Egyptologists have dubbed ‘God’s wife embrace’. This image represented the Aurora as it ‘embraced’ Venus. For this reason, Hatshepsut had the title ‘She who embraces Amun.’ On the right of the obelisk is an image of Hatshepsut making an offering to the god Horus who was the embodiment of kingship.

Tuthmosis Obelisk Karnak

Obelisk of Tuthmosis III (Credit: Jon Bosworth)

The obelisk on the left bears the cartouches of Egypt’s Napoleon, Tuthmosis III. I believe this king was identified with the Moon (‘born of the lunar god Thoth’). The top registrar depicts Tuthmosis/Moon holding hands with Amun. The lower section depicts the king making an offering to Amun. On the right we can see Amun as he reciprocates by touching the king with the ankh, the symbol for life. This image represented aurora granting life to the astral king.







Seti God Amun

Seti/Mercury receives royal regalia from Khnum (Credit: Jon Bosworth)

The image above depicts Seti/Mercury receiving royal regalia from the ram-headed god Khnum (the creator of a person’s double or ka) and Amun. The distinctly unusual headgear worn by Seti/Mercury is very interesting. It signifies that Seti/Mercury was also adorned with cometary plumes and orbiting bodies. It is illogical to propose that earthly kings wore such attire. No examples of any royal crowns have ever been found because they mainly represented the attributes of the astral kings.

The following offering scenes should be taken at face value. Egypt’s astral monarchy collected, shed and dispersed unimaginable quantities of dust and gases over the 3,000 period, especially Mars and Venus. This was naturally perceived as offering such things as food, flowers, scented oils and incense to the gods, in this case Amun.

Ramesses Amun Offering

Stela of Ramesses II, depicting Ramesses/Mars making an offering to Amun (Credit: Simon Hayter)

Ramesses Amun Karnak

Ramesses IV (Mars) offering the sign for ma’at (divine order) to Amun (the red disk of Mars is placed above the king’s crown) (Credit: Wikimedia Commons)

Ramesses Offering Amun

Ramesses III (all Mars) offering to Amun (once again the red disk of Mars is placed above the king’s crown)

Ramesses Abu Simbel

The inner sanctuary of Ramesses II temple at Abu Simbel
From left to right: Ptah/Jupiter, Amun/aurora Ramesses/Mars and Horakhty (Horus of the horizon).
Ramesses/Mars is shown the same size as the gods because he inhabited the domain of the gods and as such he was a true god among gods.